Trauma: Trauma is "a body wound or shock produced by sudden physical injury, as from violence or accident." It can also be described as "a physical wound or injury, such as a fracture or blow." Major trauma, defined by an Injury Severity Score of greater than 15, can result in secondary complications such as circulatory shock, respiratory failure and death, and resuscitation of a trauma patient can often involve multiple management procedures. Trauma is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 10% of all mortalities, and is therefore a serious public health problem with significant social and economic costs.
Arteriovenous (AV) shunt thrombosis: In hemodialysis, an artery takes blood to the dialyzer (artificial kidney) to be cleaned. A vein brings cleaned blood back. To make it easier for you and your care team, an access is usually created in an arm, but the veins in your arm are too small for dialysis.
And the arteries in arms are deep below skin, too hard to reach with dialysis needles.
A fistula is made by sewing an artery to a vein, usually in your arm. It is also called an arteriovenous (artery + vein) fistula, or “AV fistula.” When your artery is hooked up to your vein, strong blood flow from the artery makes the vein bigger and stronger. And since your veins are close to your skin’s surface, the new access is easy to reach.